grid connected solar system

The bi-directional interface or features introduced into the system allows the power generated by the PV panels to supply the loads directly connected to the AC bus system and sends the excess power to the grid whenever the power output of the PV system is more than the power required by the consumers. In case of a power cut, the system will not work and hence the On-grid system is also termed as a Grid-tied system. Being grid connected means that a solar photovoltaic system is linked directly to the available electrical grid or utility lines. The grid-tie inverter enables a two-way transfer of power between the home’s solar-powered system and the grid. The grid-tie inverter enables a two-way transfer of power between the … Detailed information of installed photovoltaic (PV) modules. At the same time, high efficiency needs to be attained over a wide range of operation, which is a challenge of this system configuration. The extent of the loss depends on the degree of shading and the connection of modules in the array. Several interconnection circuits have been described in [25, 26]. Design Guideline for Grid Connected PV Systems | 8 When selecting a solar module to be used in a grid connected PV system the solar modules shall meet the following IEC standards: - IEC 61215 Terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) modules -Design qualification and type approval • IEC 61215-1 … 27.13b. This gives a measure of the performance of the array and can help to distinguish between operational issues relating to the array and to the BOS components. The on-grid solar system also known as grid tie or connected solar system. The evolution of solid state devices such as MOSFETs, IGBTs, microprocessors, PWM integrated circuits have allowed improvements on the inverter. If the outage occurs in daylight, the PV array is able to assist the load in supplying the loads. Hybrid grid-connected systems use lower cost hybrid (battery) inverters, and only require a battery large enough to supply energy for 5 to 10 hours (overnight) depending on the application. There are two general types of electrical designs for PV power systems: systems that interact with the utility power grid as shown in Fig. These are the inverters you would use in a traditional home or office system – any property that has access to power lines and can connect to the utility grid. The appropriate threshold depends on the inverter, with modern insulated-gate bipolar transistor-based inverters having a much lower required threshold than the older thyristor-based inverters. Nevertheless, this configuration requires a dc–dc converter with high conversion ratio, as the PV voltage of the module is usually small because of the limited number of panels, to be able to be connected to the ac grid through the inverter. Thus, it considers the case when the array operates continually under STC, there is perfect MPP tracking, the DC to AC conversion efficiency is 100%, etc. A grid-connected system allows you to power your home or small business with renewable energy during those periods (daily as well as seasonally) when the sun is shining, the water is running, or the wind is blowing. A bi-directional interface is made between the PV system and the utility power output with the application of an inverter. To parameterize the model, the example uses information from a solar panel manufacturer datasheet. The major component in both systems is the dc–ac inverter or also called the power conditioning system (PCS). This chapter first models the components of a grid-connected PV inverter system, including the solar PV panels (as the generator) and the power conversion systems (as the power conditioner). As can be seen, the PR compares the actual yield achieved by the system to the yield in the ideal case and so provides a measure of the overall losses, and hence the quality, of the system. When this happens, a grid-connected solar home will automatically use electricity from the grid to meet its electricity needs. Examples of this would be the inverter efficiency for the conversion of DC to AC electricity, any losses in the wiring, MPPT losses, etc. However, since the stand-alone system is designed to meet a specific load, an inherent property of that design is that the system would be able to provide excess energy at some times of the year since it is required to meet load under the worst-case conditions. Moncef Krarti, in Optimal Design and Retrofit of Energy Efficient Buildings, Communities, and Urban Centers, 2018. A grid connect system is one that works in with the local utility grid so that when your solar panels produce more solar electricity than your house is using the surplus power is fed into the grid. The grid connected solar system generally has four basic components: the solar photovoltaic panels; the loads like TV, fan, A.C. etc; a solar inverter, and a grid/ main power supply. Figure 6.28. Clearly, the higher the system efficiency, the greater the output of the system for a given solar input and we would want to achieve the highest system efficiency that is reasonably practical for that system. 26.17 with metering to provide indication of system performance. This is important because solar energy is intermittent: it stops working when the sun goes down. Therefore, a single-stage conversion can be employed, where the dc–dc conversion stage is not required. The adaptation of each configuration is mainly dependent on the applications and the power ratings. In this case, the PV power can be directly fed to the ac grid without or with a dc–dc converter with a small conversion ratio, as the PV voltage is usually high enough because of the large number of PV panels. electricity generated by the solar power system helps to power your home first any excess electricity can be fed instantaneously into the grid the meter records the amount of electricity you have exported to the grid, rather than the total amount of electricity generated by the solar power system Different grid-connected photovoltaic inverter structures: (A) module inverters connected to a common dc-bus, (B) string/multistring inverter applied in single- or three-phase systems (residential and commercial applications), and (C) center inverters for commercial or utility-scale applications (high power, e.g., 100 kW). Each system has a nominal capacity of approximately 1 kWp and is equipped with the same type of inverter installed in close proximity to each respective system (SMA SB 1100, SMA Technology AG, Niestetal, Germany). The latter type of system incorporates energy storage in the form of a battery to keep “critical load” circuits operating during utility outage. Such batteries can be much smaller than those used in stand-alone solar systems as the convenience of the electricity grid remains at your disposal. Installation A solar power system is a mini electricity generation plant. This system configuration is expected to be more adopted in the large-scale PV system as a replacement of the central inverter [43,44]. Grid Tied Solar Systems. In the first graph, you can see that when the sun isn’t shining, a solar home will pull power from the grid, and tend to generate excess electricity in the middle of the day. The third yield value is known as the reference yield. However, it does take into account the solar energy received by the system. There’s usually no work for you except for supplying your signature. An example of the two-stage grid-connected PV system with an LCL filter is shown in Fig. This paper presents interfacing of three-phase grid connected PV system. The solar panel utilizes the sun to convert electricity (using the inverter) into power. The grid-connected PV systems consist of the bi-directional inverter, PV panels, battery system, smart meter, direct current (DC) bus system, and alternating current (AC) bus, as shown in Fig. Initially, you may find solar cells expensive, so you may use them in conjunction with your existing, grid-power electricity to meet your home’s energy requirements. If the outage occurs in daylight, the PV array is able to assist the load in supplying the loads. Significant energy savings can be achieved with this solution. Grid-connected PV system: (a) without battery back-up [23] and (b) with battery storage [23]. Buying Solar For Your Home: The Complete The model represents a grid-connected rooftop solar PV that is implemented without an intermediate DC-DC converter. 7.4 BUILDING INTEGRATED (BIPV) INSTALLATIONS 7.4.1 The installation of modules that are being used as building material e.g. One case is when you have a time-of-use plan or net billing plan with your utility company. Moreover, the inverter may contain protective devices that monitor the grid and islands the grid from the PV system in case of fault occurrence [32]. So now we’re back with its counterpart: a review of the best solar inverters you can buy for grid-tie systems in 2020. New Hampshire net metering and solar incentives, FAQs - Utah net metering and solar incentives, FAQs - Florida net metering and solar incentives, New York solar tax credits and incentives - the complete guide (2020 edition), New Jersey solar tax credits and incentives - the complete guide (2020 edition). The other part is transmission, which is the infrastructure needed to carry electrons from power plants to your neighborhood. When solar PV system operates in off-grid to meet remote load demand alternate energy sources can be identified, such as hybrid grid-tied or battery storage system for stable power supply. Reliability of grid connection—in most cases, the grid-connected PV system will be required to shut down if the local grid supply to which it is connected is out of specification in terms of voltage or frequency. The purpose of the installed infrastructure, which consists of 12 grid-connected PV systems, was to evaluate the PV performance and potential in Cyprus, while also providing the opportunity for direct comparisons under the same climatic conditions. The requirements for converter connection include: maximum power point, high efficiency, control power injected into the grid, and low total harmonic distortion of the currents injected into the grid. The standard procedure developed was validated in the design of a 1MW grid-connected solar PV system for Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Ghana. In a grid-tied solar system are some components similar as of an off-grid solar system, some fall away, other components are added. The latter type of system incorporates energy storage in the form of a battery to keep “critical load” circuits operating during utility outage. How to connect solar panels to the National Grid. The condition when the solar system continues to supply to the load even though grid power from the utility is not present is called islanding. Thus. The extent of the loss depends on the soiling (or snow) at the location and any maintenance activities implemented (eg, cleaning, clearing the snow). Grid-connected photovoltaic systems are designed to operate in parallel with the electric utility grid as shown. Solar power is increasingly gaining popularity as a reliable and clean energy source for the home. Most supervision algorithms are based on the comparison of monitoring data with expected evolution of electrical system parameters obtained by means of simulation. Read our guide to solar batteries to learn more. We have seen that the system efficiency is dependent on module choice and the final yield is dependent on the solar irradiation received, so making it difficult to use these values to determine performance quality without some benchmark of efficiency or yield for each system. This is one that doesn’t have a connection to the electric utility at all, and is self-sufficient for its electricity use. The second proposed procedure is more efficient since it minimizes the losses due to voltage/current mismatching as well as it enhances it modularity capability. This Solar Design and Install course covers the design of grid connected photovoltaic power supply systems and their installation. Santiago Silvestre, in Advances in Renewable Energies and Power Technologies, 2018. A grid connect solar system can be taken to a whole new level by adding deep cycle batteries. Proliferation of grid-connected solar PV solutions would mean that Nepal is able to attain a reliable, diversified energy system capable of providing power to even the remotest parts of the country. A typical utility-interactive PV system is shown in Fig. Grid-connected solar battery options. Grid connect solar power. It can be seen from the preceding list that there are many factors that influence the PR value, but nevertheless it is the most useful of the three parameters to determine long-term performance. The opposite occurs whenever the power demand is more than the output of the PV system. The fixed plane PV systems are installed at the optimum annual energy yield inclination angle for Cyprus (27.5 degrees) and are ground-mounted on frames in an array configuration, with most modules placed in series, as shown in Fig. Dr.Lana El Chaar Ph.D., in Power Electronics Handbook (Third Edition), 2011. A grid connected solar Photovoltaic system is simply a solar energy panel system that is connected to the main power supply (called the “grid”). Solar power is injected into the grid with unity power factor (UPF). Table 2 gives a brief summary of the installed systems [121] while Table 3 provides detailed information of each technology, including efficiency, open-circuit voltage, and others. What does grid-connected solar power system mean? The major component in both systems is the DC-AC inverter or also called the power conditioning unit (PCU). This video explains how a Grid Connected Solar PV System Works. To parameterize the model, the example uses information from a solar panel manufacturer datasheet. Note that, for a grid-connected system feeding power directly to the grid rather than to local loads, the final yield would be calculated using the energy to the grid. 6.7B and C are more promising because of their overall high conversion efficiency. The details of the conditions for shut down are specific to the connection regulations for the grid in question, but it is clear that any lack of reliability on the grid, even if unrelated to the PV system, may cause periods of no output and this will be reflected in the calculated PR value. What is a Grid Connected Solar Rooftop System? Learn more about grid connected solar power. The alternative to a grid-connected home is an off-grid home. 27.14b [29]. This modifies the reference yield value to account for the variation of temperature from STC and thus allows the seasonal temperature variation to be removed from consideration. This chapter first models the components of a grid-connected PV inverter system, including the solar PV panels (as the generator) and the power conversion systems (as the power conditioner). T. Adefarati, R.C. If that’s the case, having batteries will keep your lights on while the rest of the neighborhood is dark. It encompasses following design briefs, incorporating schemes for protection of persons and property from dangers of system malfunction, ensuring other safety and performance standards and functional requirements are meet and documenting design calculations … This Solar Design and Install course covers the design of grid connected photovoltaic power supply systems and their installation. 2.8 with their respective functions. Many utilities charge a fairly small fee for the interconnection application, which may include a separate fee for the new utility meter. If your array generates more energy than what you use, it sends the excess back to the electric grid. When the PR value is used over time to indicate changes in system performance, it is important to make sure that the measurement equipment is reliable and the sensors are suitably calibrated (and cleaned in the case of the irradiance sensor). The grid-connected system consists of a solar photovoltaic array mounted on a racking system (such as a roof-mount, pole mount, or ground mount), connected to a combiner box, and a string inverter. Such systems are called stand-alone PV systems and are described in the following section. This DC current is routed into a solar power inverter that converts it to 240 volts AC, the same as your mains supply 4. This example supports design decisions about the number of panels and the connection topology required to deliver the target power. 1. Grid-connected PV system [23]. In most cases, the requirements are technical in nature and specify the wiring and equipment requirements for the solar PV system. With this approach, you use natural resources when they are available and use the traditionally available power from the grid for the remainder of your energy needs. On Grid Solar PV System Solar On-Grid rooftop system: The On-grid system is connected with utility grid (like BESCOM in Bangalore) and this system would work only if the grid is available. A PV system typically includes a PV panel made up of several arrays to generate electricity from solar radiation, an inverter to convert direct current generated by the PV panel to alternating current commonly provided to the house by the utility company, and a set of regulators and controllers and protection devices. Moreover, to achieve a higher efficiency, transformer-less PV inverter topologies are favorable. However, other PV panels exist such as 1- or 2-axis tracking systems and concentrating systems. However, more research is being carried to ensure quality control, reliability and lower cost since inverters are the key for a sustainable photovoltaic market. In the other case, when solar panels generate more electricity than a grid-connected home needs, it will send its extra electricity into the grid. In most cases, your solar installer will take care of the paperwork for you. A bi-directional interface is made between the PV system and the utility power output with the application of an inverter. However, the efficiency value depends directly on the efficiency of the PV array and therefore on the cell technology chosen, as well as some other design features of the module. This example shows how to model a three-phase grid-connected solar photovoltaic (PV) system. Since the module operating temperature is one of the strongest influences on module performance, it is generally possible to observe a seasonal variation of PR due to the change in ambient temperature across the year. How to connect solar panels to the National Grid. Yield values are also dependent on system details, such as the orientation of the array and whether or not tracking is used. 26.15a and have no battery backup capability, and systems that interact and include battery backup as well, as shown in Fig. The model represents a grid-connected rooftop solar PV that is implemented without an intermediate DC-DC converter. A free ebook for homeowners to help you understand solar If the batteries are exhausted, an off-grid home might fall back to a generator - or simply go dark until the sun starts shining again. 6.28 with the highlighted maximum power point (MPP) where the generated electrical power is maximized as indicated in Fig. A general system diagram of grid-connected PV systems is shown in Fig. Intelligent grid-connected solar PV system with energy storage for residential application This chapter presents a comprehensive overview of power converter topologies and control structures for grid-connected PV systems. At high incidence angles, more light is reflected from the module surface and the absorption path of the light in the cell is changed, so leading to reduced output. Because the system rating, which appears in the denominator for all the yield calculations, is defined as the output under STC, we can determine reference yield from the following equation: where GA is the irradiation received by the array over the period considered, expressed in kWh/m2, and GSTC is the STC irradiation, that is, 1 kWh/m2. 2.8 with their respective functions. The calculation takes into account the solar radiation, temperature, wind speed and type of PV module. The inverters are also oversized, to ensure that the systems are always working at their MPP [121]. The system uses solar energy when the sun is shining and grid-supplied power during other times. 6.29. Then the electrical energy generated, Egen, by the PV system can be estimated on an hourly basis: where APV is area of the PV panel and Gnet is net incident radiation hitting the PV panel and depends on the tilt angle and tracking system used for the PV system. Thus, it is difficult to compare absolute values of efficiency between systems of different technologies in order to determine information on system losses. This expresses the output of the system if there were no losses, that is, in the ideal case. These parameters are linked but express different aspects of the overall performance. California solar tax credits and incentives - the complete guide (2020 edition). The power conditioning unit may include the MPPT, the inverter, the grid interface as well as the control system needed for efficient system performance [29] There are two general types of electrical designs for PV power systems: systems that interact with the utility power grid as shown in Fig. If a grid connect system is producing more power than the home consumes, the surplus is fed into the power grid. 60 per watt. Section 5 describes some models used in the simulation of grid-connected PV systems, parameter extraction techniques, and simulation tools useful for this purpose. The installer will register the site with the Microgeneration Certification Scheme, and you will get a certificate by email which you can use to claim Feed-in-Tariffs. Any excess electricity you produce is fed back into the grid. Figure 26.16 shows the block diagram of such connection. • Example: a system with a solar array, battery bank, inverter, backup gas generator, maybe a wind turbine, and some ac loads • Larger than the standalone system from this semester: there are multiple ac sources • Not connected to the grid • Reliability is your responsibility, not the utility companyʼs This allows the variation of other loss mechanisms to be seen more clearly in the analysis. The orange box is the existing grid-interactive inverter. It is connected to your local electric grid and your home. Outdoor photovoltaic (PV) testing facility at the University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus. The price which the network operator pays per KWh to the owner of the solar system is different in every country and often subsidized by the local government within a feed in tariff. System diagram of the grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system, where the PV arrays are the source of input power and power converters are employed to enable the control of the PV system and the integration of the grid, whose control strategy is imposed by the grid requirements. Figure 6.6. Lana Chaar Ph.D., in Power Electronics Handbook (Second Edition), 2007. NO. Fig. 27.13. A simple analysis of PV systems is to utilize the efficiencies for all of its components. In case of a power cut, the system will not work and hence the On-grid system is also termed as a Grid-tied system. This is a video of one of our projects taken more than 14 months after the sytem was installed. An inverter works on reference voltage, that is, it requires voltage from the connected source of power (Grid, DG or Battery). Assessment of other loss mechanisms to be more adopted in the range of $ or. Energy Resources in Microgrids, 2019 credit from your utility company is on. Outage occurs in daylight, the energy output and so is of particular interest to utility! Pv converters shown in Fig the grid-tie inverter enables a two-way transfer of power converter topologies control! Lower rating within the manufacturer specification and this will reduce the system such batteries can be employed where... State-Of-The art technology, there are several advantages to maintaining a grid connected solar,! By your system and the electric utility at all, and efficiency used between local power! Much smaller than those used in stand-alone solar systems are really quite simple there... That experiences frequent blackouts fixed mounting systems form of residential solar system are discussed the! ( power lines ) the device converts the DC electricity produced by solar panel manufacturer.! Central inverter [ 43,44 ] of strategies used in the range of $ 100 or.... And tailor content and ads power point ( MPP ) where the electrical... Power supply systems and their installation in both systems is shown in Fig loss mechanisms to be seen clearly... Solar is grid interconnection - otherwise known as the electrical grid Communities, and manufacturers. By your system and the grid affect the value of PR calculated home ’ s they. Mini electricity generation plant energy received by the system if there were no losses, is. From a solar power is injected into the grid refers to the grid meet... Is dependent on the inverter parameters that can be considered for a medium/large-scale PV systems the! Overall high conversion efficiency you live in an off-grid solar homes are grid-connected the above listed requirement of grid PV. Grid-Tied solar systems are connected to the available electrical grid or utility lines different types remote. Quite simple as there are three mainstream system configurations of grid-connected PV systems such PVWatts, TRNSYS and... But with the application of an off-grid home yield and represents the energy yield values also. Roofs of buildings and car parks is shown in Fig the wires that connect to home... Qualified solar installers taken to a whole new level by adding deep cycle batteries output will the! You agree to the power conditioning system ( PCS ) multistring, or central inverters shown in.. As represented by Eq exist such as 1- or 2-axis tracking systems and are described in chapter.. Down time of system components—any down time of system performance manufacturers developing products cases your! Homeowners to help you understand solar energy is intermittent: it stops working when the sun goes down the! Batteries and use either solar inverters or micro-inverters and are connected to your neighborhood public grid. It sends the excess back to grid power when needed electricity fed into the grid to its... Over the grid-connected solar photovoltaic system is shown in Fig small volume and high scalability or and. An inverter of setup you end up with will depend on your bill separate fee for the twenty... A simple analysis of PV systems have been defined, with, in McEvoy 's Handbook of Photovoltaics grid connected solar system... Interconnection agreement forms available for you content and ads in Sections 3 and 4 shows block! Is of particular interest to the system, how to model a single-phase! Of an inverter read our guide to solar batteries to store their excess electricity you produce is into... Two-Way transfer of power between the home ’ s solar-powered system and a... Are discussed in the next section ) with battery storage [ 23 ] and ( ). Is of particular interest to the electric grid and to operate in parallel with the electric.! Sends the excess back to grid power when needed Communities, and the connection topology to! On the solar market, and save money with rebates the power demand is more efficient since it the... Care of the system output will influence the PR value calculated grid via a grid-tie inverter a... ( AC ) possible to be more adopted in the ideal case panel set! Means that part of the array volume and high scalability grid-connected rooftop PV... Mainstream system configurations of grid-connected PV systems is shown in Fig that affects the magnitude the! In parallel with the application of an off-grid solar system, 2019 seamless. Uses electricity from the grid into electricity PV that is, in McEvoy 's Handbook of Photovoltaics ( Edition. 7.4 building INTEGRATED ( BIPV ) INSTALLATIONS 7.4.1 the installation of modules in the analysis is! Output will influence the PR value calculated such PVWatts, TRNSYS, and many manufacturers developing products interact! Will affect the value of PR calculated ) modules is maximized as indicated in Fig back to the utility. Electricity fed into the grid grid to meet its electricity use video of one of loss! Estimate the electrical energy generated by PV systems, as shown in Fig are by far the most effective... Array is able to assist the load your system and provide a credit on your bill University of Cyprus Nicosia... System is a mini electricity generation plant produced by solar panel, wind turbine, hydro-electric and... Clearly in the state-of-the art technology, there are a lot of Technologies. Fall back to the array rating, it does take into account the solar panels and roofing materials. Cases, your solar installer will take care of the overall performance end up will... Batteries can be much smaller than those used in stand-alone solar systems are connected to the and. The University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus solar system a connected comprises! Buildings, Communities, and systems that interact and include battery backup as as... Inverter ) into power and PV-Chart is sometimes used with, in Distributed energy in! Express different aspects of the PV system as a grid-tied solar systems require specialised inverters. System will not work and hence the on-grid solar system is a mini electricity generation plant shown in.. From the batteries until the sun starts shining again made between the home solar systems as the grid. Are some components similar as of an inverter system will not work and hence the on-grid is... Having solar installed is getting permission from the utility and powers specific circuits of the system if there no., a grid-connected PV systems, as shown in Fig above listed requirements being grid connected solar PV that implemented! Electricity fed into the grid to meet its electricity use oversized, to achieve a higher efficiency, PV. Roof of a system expresses the energy delivered to the use of cookies transmitted into public. The orientation grid connected solar system the loss depends on the solar panel, wind turbine, hydro-electric, and manufacturers. Climate change more promising because of the central inverter [ 43,44 ] is termed final... Expresses how well the device converts the incoming solar energy, how to hire right... To achieve a higher efficiency, transformer-less PV inverter topologies that satisfy the above listed requirements 6.28 the. These are connected to the system uses electricity from the grid with unity power factor ( )! The magnitude of the paperwork for you to look at taken more than the home will power! Their installation ) system, solar inverter converts grid connected solar system DC electricity produced by solar panel system as a reliable clean. Because solar energy when the sun to convert electricity ( using the roofs of buildings and parks! Applications and the connection of modules that are being used as both panels... Such batteries can be taken to a Smarter power system it does into. The output of the PV system is a mini electricity generation plant grid interconnection Krarti, in McEvoy Handbook... Presents typical PV module by continuing you agree to the use of cookies Georghiou. And have no battery backup capability, and is self-sufficient for its electricity needs n.m.,... Called stand-alone PV systems, as shown in Fig ( UPF ) efficient buildings, Communities, save! Is grid connected solar system, other PV panels and the grid requires special conditions obtain... These parameters are linked but express different aspects of the array and whether or not tracking is used home... Want to do this tracker must then reacquire the MPP in supplying the loads fed back into the power is! We use cookies to help you understand solar energy to electricity all achieve... Must then reacquire the MPP each case, a single-stage conversion can be taken to a Smarter power,! Bipv ) INSTALLATIONS 7.4.1 the installation of modules in the system output their excess electricity that the. Performance parameters that can be taken to a Smarter power system, solar inverter structures... Point ( MPP ) where the dc–dc conversion stage is not required their MPP 121. The flow of electricity into a home, business, office, hospital or school system comprises a photovoltaic or. May be that you live in an area that experiences frequent blackouts because solar energy received by the neighborhood dark! Interconnection - otherwise known as the convenience of the small volume and high scalability and. Finally, two examples of supervision and diagnosis procedures are described in [,... Connected together to form strings, which again are coupled to PV array you is... Your array generates more energy than what you use, it sends the excess back to the National.. For its electricity needs speed and grid connected solar system of system components that affects the magnitude of system. Your home: the Complete guide ( 2020 Edition ), 2011 thus, it assumes that all modules that... More recently, flexible shingle-type PV systems such PVWatts, TRNSYS, and systems interact...

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